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© Copyright 1993 Mario Hilgemeier

The two faces of intelligence

      "Using metaphor, we say that computers have senses and a 
memory" said William Jovanovic [1]. In the dictionary [17], 
intelligence is defined in two principal ways:

Meaning 1: consciousness, an intelligent entity (e.g. man), 
intelligent minds or mind (e.g. cosmic intelligence), the act of 
understanding, comprehension.

Meaning 2: mechanical thinking, which includes the ability to learn 
or to deal with new situations, the ability to apply knowledge to 
manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly (as measured by 

      I believe it is intelligence in the sense of meaning 1 that 
creates mathematical ideas. It is a mind that looks at itself and 
says "well, I am one 1; there is one of me 11, and this description 
has two parts 21 ...". However, prevalent theories insist that even 
human intelligence developed out of simple information-carrying 
molecules (the DNA) via evolution of the genes in the contexts of 
cell, organism and ecosystem. We do not know enough yet to conclude 
with absolute certainty that the intelligence of man is only that of 
a biological (molecular) machine.  Molecules are subject to quantum 
processes. And we do not know whether consciousness is controlled or 
influenced by quantum processes [18, 19].

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